Distinguished paper at LICS 2021.
We develop a theory of vector spaces spanned by orbit-finite sets. Using this theory, we give a decision procedure for equivalence of weighted register automata, which are the common generalization of weighted automata and register automata for infinite alphabets. The algorithm runs in exponential time, and in polynomial time for a fixed number of registers. As a special case, we can decide, with the same complexity, language equivalence for unambiguous register automata, which improves previous results in three ways: (a) we allow for order comparisons on atoms, and not just equality; (b) the complexity is exponentially better; and (c) we allow automata with guessing.